Teasel, Wild Rose and Parsnipflower Buckwheat

It is that time of year to get out in the woods and start identifying medicinal herbs, shrubs, trees that grow in Central Oregon (Crook, Deschutes and Jefferson counties).   This year I will be doing my first official plant walk through COCC into the Ochoco’s National Forest and am excited to be sharing this info with others who have an interest in plant medicine.

This past weekend I attended a wildflower walk with our local land conservancy non-profit.  They were showcasing a large-scale project bringing back the historical flow of the Whychus river.  As much as I enjoyed the hike and appreciated the project they were undertaking, I was struck by the language the leaders of the plant walk used when talking about plants that they considered “bad” in relationship to their conservation efforts.  I certainly understand the importance of ecological balance based on historical misuse of land and how some plant species adapt and out-compete other plant populations, yet when one of the attendees asked about whether a particular plant was a “good” plant or a “bad” plant (mullein) it doubled my efforts to try to expose more people to the value that plants contribute to the health of our planet and ourselves.  I realize this is an uphill battle, but the slash and burn terminology and disregard of the value of plants in the name of conservation, is an issue near and dear to my heart.

Below are a few of the plants and their medicinal values we found on the hike.

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Hercules eriogonum

As usual there are many different common names for this particular plant.  The folks on the plant walk referred to it as Northern Desert Buckwheat, Peterson’s Field Guild-Western Medicinal Plants and Herbs,  refers to it as Umbrella plant, Moerman-Native American Medicinal Plants refers to it as Parsnipflower Buckwheat, yet all indicate its Latin name to be Hercules eriogonum from the buckwheat family.  An important lesson in the use of Latin names to make sure everyone is referring to the same plant.  Native American historical use by the Okanagan-Colville tribes indicated that the roots and stems were taken for colds.  They also used it topically as a poultice (smashing the leaves) for cuts and sores, or as a decoction (cooking) of roots and stems in a wash for infected cuts.  The Thompson tribe used it as pain medicine, the leaves were used as disinfectant, an infusion was used for ceremonial purposes for purifying the sweat house, a steam bath of the for rheumatism, infusion and decoction of the plant used in lung disease.  Key attributes:  analgesic, antirheumatic, disinfectant, dermatological, gastrointestinal aid, and pulmonary aid. *sources:  Steedman, E. V. 1928.  The Ethnobotany of the Thompson Indians of British Columbia, Smithsonian Institution.  Turner, Nancy J. et al. 1990. Thompson Ethnobotany:  Knowledge and Usage of Plants .  Victoria: Royal British Columbia Museum.

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Fullers Teasel, Dipsacus fullonum

Fullers Teasel, Dipsacus fullonum Originally from Europe and northern Africa, common teasel was first introduced to North America in the 1700’s and has since spread from coast to coast and is considered a noxious weed.  The genus name is derived from the word for thirst and refers to the cup-like formation made where sessile leaves merge at the stem and capture rain water.   There has been some evidence that this water provides a natural insect barrier to sap sucking aphids.  As is the case of many plants they have been used for dyeing fabric.  A blue dye obtained from the dried plant is substitute for indigo and yellow is obtained when the plant is mixed with alum.  The plant contains theine (caffeine), tannin, gallotannic acid, boheic acid, volatile oil, aqueous extract, protein wax, resin, ash and theophylline.  There is little evidence of its use by Native Americans with the exception of the Iroquois who used it as a dermatological aid, infusing the leaves in a tea as a wash for acne.  They considered the roots were poisonous.

In the past, people believed that the rainwater that collected in the bowl-like depression of teasel leaves was helpful in providing relief from irritation and swelling in the eyes.  In ancient Greece, Dioscorides thought the root of teasel possessed purifying attributes and suggested the use of a decoction prepared by simmering the roots of teasel in wine for treating warts as well as fistulas effectively. In addition to Dioscorides, several other herbalists of the ancient times also advocated the use of the roots of this herb to treat jaundice and as a diuretic to augment the flow of urine.

There has been more recent exploration of the value of Dipsacus follunum root tincture (low dose) by herbalist Matthew Wood in treating chronic inflammation of the muscles, one of the major symptoms caused by spirochetes associated from Lyme Disease.  In fact the  Journal of the American Herbalist Guild, volume 11/number 2/Autumn 2013 published a special issue on Herbal Treatment of Lyme Disease, including information on the use of teasel.  An overview of the use of teasel in the treatment of Lyme can be read at the following web site:  http://www.flaatthjelp.net/to-sma-flattbitt/teasel/

According to the Scottish School of Herbal Medicine who conducted wrote an abstract on two types of Dipsacus utilizing first a systematic literature review consulting historic and modern texts and second a semi-structured interview was conducted with three herbal practitioners skilled in teasel use. The results were analyzed using thematic analysis, a qualitative method, and the results or themes composed separately. Both forms of literature were then compared and contrasted to ascertain Dipsacus spp’s therapeutic properties.  Analysis of the interview and literature data appears to show that teasel still holds a place within the British herbalist’s dispensary and is suitable for treating chronic skin disorders and musculoskeletal inflammation and damage. With our over-reliance on importing herbs from all corners of the Earth, this nuisance plant may once again fulfill a role within our modern dispensary.

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Rosa woodsii, Woods’s Rose

A shrub, Woods’s Rose, was also pointed out during the walk.  Wild roses are a bit hard to identify so my best attempt was Rosa woodsii.  Roses has been used historical by cultures throughout the world with all of parts of the shrub finding their way into our materia medica.  In fact it is far beyond the scope of this post to elicit all the wonderful attributes of roses on our health and psychic. In the America’s many tribes used a variety of wild rose species.  In this bioregion the Paiute tribes used a decoction of the root for diarrhea, a poultice of various parts of the plant as a burn medicine, a decoction of the inner bark of the shrub for colds, a poultice of the  mashed fungus galls for open boils, and an infusion of the leaves were taken as a spring tonic.  The Thompson tribe used the hips to help women in labor to hasten delivery and a decoction of the roots were taken by women after childbirth to tonify the uterus.  They also made a decoction of branches of rose, chokecherry and willow for diarrhea and vomiting.  Pioneer women used the hips of wild rose in jelly, pudding and syrups.  Kiva Rose has an outstanding write-up of the multiple ways that you can utilize rose in medicine and food. http://medicinewomansroots.blogspot.com/2007/05/sweet-medicine-healing-with-wild-heart.html

Herbal  Goddess Medicinals provides this information as a way to continue to educate ourselves about the medicinal use of plant.  Never use any plant unless you are 100% of its identification and  always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

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